Tulalip Tribal Court
The Northwest Intertribal Court System (NICS) was established in 1979 in response to the provisions of the federal court decision known as the Boldt Decision allowing tribes with fisheries law enforcement and judicial systems to conduct treaty fisheries without state control.
In 1979, Tulalip and many other treaty fishing tribes lacked law and justice systems. The establishment of NICS, melding together the sovereignties of a dozen tribes, satisfied the Federal court requirement of a tribal court system to handle cases arising from activities of treaty fishing enforcement agencies.
Today, NICS administers the Judicial (including Pro Tems) functions of the Tulalip Tribes and also provides Appellate Court services. Both the Chief Judge Theresa M. Pouley, and Associate Judge Gary F. Bass are licensed attorneys and are both enrolled Tribal members of the Colville Tribes.
The Tulalip Tribal Court hears cases involving dissolution of marriage, child custody, child support, criminal, guardianship, employment appeals, gaming license appeals, domestic violence, personal protection orders, traffic and youth-in-need of care cases, as well as many other types of cases.
Tulalip Tribal Court Chief Judge Theresa M. Pouley
Theresa M. Pouley is the Associate Justice of the Colville Court of Appeals, Chief Judge of the Tulalip Tribal Court, and is the former Chief Judge of the Lummi Tribal Court. As a Judge of the Northwest Intertribal Court System, she serves as a trial judge and appellate court justice for several other Northwest tribes.
Judge Pouley was appointed to the Indian Law & Order Commission by President Obama in 2011. She formerly served as the President of the Northwest Tribal Court Judges Association and formerly served on the Board of Directors for the National American Indian Court Judges Association. She has worked and lectured with the Washington State Office of Administrator of Court’s in the area of Domestic Violence and Indian Law for the last several years. She was a presenter to the United States Supreme Court Justices O’Conner and Breyer on “Indigenous Justice Paradigms.” She provided Testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs on “Challenges in Law Enforcement in Indian Country” in 2000, the “Oversight Hearings on Tribal Courts” in 2007, and “Tribal Law and Order Act,” one year later in 2011.
She frequently lectures at local, state and national conferences on Tribal Courts and Indian Law issues. She was selected by the Washington Supreme Court to sit on the “Historical Court of Justice” which reviewed and exonerated Chief Leschi in 2004. She was awarded the National Tribal Child Support’s Award for Outstanding Judge in 2005. Tulalip Tribal Court was awarded the Harvard Honoring Nations Award in 2006 for its focus on its therapeutic and indigenous approaches to criminal law.
Judge Pouley graduated from Wayne State University Law School in 1987, was admitted to the Michigan Bar and Washington Bar. She has been an attorney for over 20 years and in her practice had a variety of roles including private practice in Michigan and Washington and teaching Indian Law at local community colleges and the Northwest Indian College. She is a member of the Colville Confederated Tribes in eastern Washington.
Tulalip Tribal Court Associate Judge Gary F. Bass
Gary F. Bass is Associate Judge of the Tulalip Tribal Court; is a Justice on the Colville Tribal Court of Appeals; and a Justice on the Nevada Inter-Tribal Court of Appeals.
Judge Bass is a member of the Colville Confederated Tribes, Lakes Band in eastern Washington and served as an Airborne Ranger in Special Forces from 1962 to 1965. He participated in the invasion of Fort Lawton, which led to the establishment of Daybreak Star Center at Discovery Park. Prior to his appointment to the Tulalip Tribal Court bench in 2003, he had a general practice in Seattle, Washington where he tried over one hundred jury trials to verdict. He was admitted to the bar in Washington State in 1965. He sat as a Pro Tem Court Commissioner in King County Superior Court for 20 years in the Ex Parte Department. Judge Bass also was a Washington State Trial Lawyers Association Eagle, and was rate A-V in the Martindale Hubble.
Judge Bass was instrumental in starting the Tulalip Tribes' Elder's Panel; the Tulalip-Based Juvenile Community Accountability Board; as well as the Tulalip Wellness (Drug) Court.
He earned his bachelor's degree from Gonzaga University and his Juris Doctorate from the University of Washington School of Law in 1965.
Tulalip Tribal Court Associate Judge Jesse B. Filkins, Jr.
Judge Jesse Filkins Jr. is an Associate Judge of the Tulalip Tribal Court. Judge Filkins was hired by the Northwest Intertribal Court and appointed by the Tulalip Tribes’ Board of Directors in March 2013. Prior to sitting on the bench at Tulalip, he served as Chief Judge at Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan. He’s also held other Chief Judge appointments at Havasupai Tribe and the Yavapai-Apache Nation, Ak-Chin Indian Community, Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation and other judicial posts as well. Judge Filkins was also an Attorney Associate with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, D.C.
Judge Filkins holds numerous professional licenses and is a member of the National American Indian Court Judges Association as well as the Arizona Tribal Court Judges Association and is a member of the bars of Maryland, D.C., Arizona, U.S. District Court of Arizona, and the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. He also lectured on a variety of subjects in law and banking and has authored several articles.
Judge Filkins earned his Juris Doctorate degree from George Washington University-National Law Center in Washington D.C. and is an enrolled member of the Ramapough Mountain Indians in New Jersey.
Wendy A. Church, Tulalip Tribal Court Director
Wendy A. Church, is a Tulalip Tribal member, and earned her undergraduate degree in criminal justice at Columbia College of Missouri and a master's degree in public administration with an emphasis in tribal governance from Evergreen State College (Her Master's capstone research paper was on The Resurrection of the Tulalip Tribes' Law and Justice System and its Socio-Economic Impacts). She also has a Legal Secretary/Assistant certificate from L.H. Bates Vocational-Technical Institute.
Wendy is currently employed as the Tulalip Tribal Court Director, and was previously employed with the Office of the Tulalip Tribes' Reservation Attorney as office manager for seven years, and three years as a Legal Secretary. Other employment included working at the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Puget Sound Agency, editor of the Tulalip Tribal newspaper (The See-Yaht-Sub), and the Small Tribes of Western Washington.
She is an alternate board member of the Northwest Intertribal Court System, and has membership to the following organizations: National Association for Court Management; Tulalip Tribes' Law and Justice Committee; and, the Northwest Indian Bar Association. She recently completed and graduated from the National Judicial College's Court Management for Tribal Court Judges and Personnel.